E-Government (short for electronic government, also known as e-gov, digital government, online government, or connected government) is digital interactions between a government and citizens (G2C), government and businesses/Commerce (G2B), government and employees, and also between government and governments /agencies (G2G). Essentially, the e-Government delivery models can be briefly summed up as: 1.) G2C (Government to Citizens)2.) G2B (Government to Businesses)3.) G2E (Government to Employees)4.) G2G (Government to Governments)

This digital interaction consists of governance, information and communication technology (ICT), business process re-engineering (BPR), and e-citizen at all levels of government (city, state/province, national, and international). E-Government' (or Digital Government) is defined as ‘The employment of the Internet and the world-wide-web for delivering government information and services to the citizens. 'Electronic Government' (or in short 'e-Government') essentially refers to ‘The utilization of IT, ICTs, and other web-based telecommunication technologies to improve and/or enhance on the efficiency and effectiveness of service delivery in the public sector’.

E-government describes the use of technologies to facilitate the operation of government and the disbursement of government information and services. E-government, short for electronic government, deals heavily with Internet and non-internet applications to aid in governments. E-government includes the use of electronics in government as large-scale as the use of telephones and fax machines, as well as surveillance systems, tracking systems such as RFID tags, and even the use of television and radios to provide government-related information and services to the citizens.

Disadvantages of e-gov

The main disadvantages concerning e-government is the lack of equality in public access to the internet, reliability of information on the web, and hidden agendas of government groups that could influence and bias public opinions, impacts on economic, social, and political factors, vulnerability to cyber attacks, and disturbances to the status quo in these areas.

Hyper-surveillance - Once e-government begins to develop and become more sophisticated, citizens will be forced to interact electronically with the government on a larger scale. This could potentially lead to a lack of privacy for civilians as their government obtains more and more information on them.

Cost - Although “a prodigious amount of money has been spent” on the development and implementation of e-government, some say it has yielded only a mediocre product.

Digital divide - An e-government site that provides web access and support often does not offer the “potential to reach many users including those who live in remote areas, are homebound, have low literacy levels, exist on poverty line incomes”. It is the division between people having or not having communication technology.

False sense of transparency and accountability - Opponents of e-government argue that online governmental transparency is dubious because it is maintained by the governments themselves. Information can be added or removed from the public eye.

Government-to-Government (G2G) model

This model involves transactions between 2 governments. For example, if the American government wants to by oil from the Arabian government, the transaction involved are categorized in the G2G model. It may also be defined as the electronic transactions between two governments within a nation like centre & state govt. or state & state govt. It is mainly about information sharing, not commerce in most of the occasions.

Vertical Govt. Integration – e-commerce among govt. agencies up and down and local levels. Example: County Councils – dealing with the Dept. of the Environment.

Horizontal Govt. Integration – e-commerce among agencies within one level. Example: National Roads Authority dealing with the Heritage council.

Government-to-Consumer (G2C) model

In this model, the government transacts with an individual consumer. For example, a government can enforce laws pertaining to tax payments on individual consumers over the Internet by using the G2C model.

-> Does not fit well at all within the traditional supply-and-demand e-commerce notion.

-> Paying taxes, registering vehicles, grant applications, CAO applications, etc.

-> Big drive to get all local government services on web.

Government-to-Business (G2B) model

This model involves transactions between a government and business organizations. For example, the government plans to build a fly over. For this, the government requests for tenders from various contractors. Government can do this over the Internet by using the G2B model.

·         Not a large e-commerce market.

·         Example – Govt selling research services through Universities and Institutes of Technology to SMEs (Small and Medium sized Enterprises).

·         Holding auctions and selling off used / confiscated items (most times, you must be a “business” to participate in these auctions).

·         Ordinance Survey selling detailed survey data to businesses.


Business-to-Government (B2G) model

In this model, the business houses transact with the government over the Internet. For example, similar to an individual consumer, business houses can also pay their taxes on the Internet.

·         Lockheed Martin providing aviation products, satellites, naval systems, and services to US Dept of Defence (80% of its revenue).

·         Fairly large e-commerce model in terms of revenue.

·         Most U.S. government entities (for sure at the federal level) won’t do business with your business if you can’t do it electronically.

·         In Europe – governments use e-tenders to get companies to supply goods and services.

·         Part of govt. policies worldwide to automate the procurement of goods and services – cut costs.



Mobile commerce is the buying and selling of goods and services through wireless technology-i.e. handheld devices such as cellular telephones and personal digital assistants (PDAs). Mobile Commerce is any transaction, involving the transfer of ownership or rights to use goods and services, which is initiated and/or completed by using mobile access to computer-mediated networks with the help of an electronic device.

?  Mobile Ticketing – Tickets can be sent to mobile phones using a variety of technologies. Users are then able to use their tickets immediately, by presenting their phones at the venue. Tickets can be booked and cancelled on the mobile device with the help of simple application downloads, or by accessing the WAP portals of various travel agents or direct service providers. Example: People getting movie tickets or getting boarding pass on mobiles.

?  Mobile vouchers, coupons and loyalty cards - Mobile ticketing technology can also be used for the distribution of vouchers, coupons, and loyalty cards. These items are represented by a virtual token that is sent to the mobile phone. A customer presenting a mobile phone with one of these tokens at the point of sale receives the same benefits as if they had the traditional token. Stores may send coupons to customers using location-based services to determine when the customer is nearby.


?  Information Services – Example: Commuters getting PNR inquiry on mobiles by doing sms on 139. Another example is getting tram arrival time on their mobile through sms.  Examples of it are News, Stock quotes, sport scores, financial records, traffic reporting, etc.

?  Mobile Banking – Banks and other financial institutions use mobile commerce to allow their customers to access account information and make transactions, such as purchasing stocks, remitting money. This service is often referred to as Mobile Banking, or M-Banking. Example: Account holders getting sms after every transaction from their banks on their mobile.

?  Content purchase and delivery - Currently, mobile content purchase and delivery mainly consists of the sale of ring-tones, wallpapers, and games for mobile phones. The convergence of mobile phones, portable audio players, and video players into a single device is increasing the purchase and delivery of full-length music tracks and video. The download speeds available with 4G networks make it possible to buy a movie on a mobile device in a couple of seconds.

?  Mobile marketing and advertising - mobile marketing refers to marketing sent to mobile devices. Companies have reported that they see better response from mobile marketing campaigns than from traditional campaigns. Mobile campaigns must be based on the global Content Generationor what is called Generation C and four other 'C's: Creativity, Casual Collapse, Control, and Celebrity.

?  Mobile Purchase - Catalog merchants can accept orders from customers electronically, via the customer's mobile device. In some cases, the merchant may even deliver the catalog electronically, rather than mailing a paper catalog to the customer. Some merchants provide mobile websites that are customized for the smaller screen and limited user interface of a mobile device.